2016长江湿地保护网络年会发布《大理宣言》,倡议: 让全社会都能分享到湿地保护的红利,实现共享发展

2016-11-07 11:07:54

  2016113-4日,由国家林业局湿地保护管理中心、UNDPWWF与云南省林业厅共同主办的中国长江湿地保护网络年会在云南大理州召开。来自全国29个省、直辖市、自治区的“湿地人”齐聚美丽的洱海之畔,与来自国内外湿地保护领域的专家、学者,共同分享了各自在长江流域保护与管理湿地的宝贵经验。在“长江大保护”的背景下,与会代表共同发布了《大理宣言》,倡议应全面提高湿地保护与修复的认识,这是实现“全国保护湿地总量到2020年不低于8亿亩”的生态文明建设目标的重要保障,更是长江大保护的核心与重中之重。在此过程中,借鉴国内外湿地保护先进经验,把流域内湿地保护和修复作为改善流域生态、提高民生福祉的重要抓手,全面融入城市基础设施和乡村环境建设,让全社会都能分享到湿地保护的红利,实现共享发展。

  今年年初,习近平主席在推动长江经济带发展座谈会上发表了一番讲话,提出“当前和今后相当长一个时期,要把修复长江生态环境摆在压倒性位置,共抓大保护,不搞大开发。”111日,习近平主持召开的中央全面深化改革领导小组第二十九次会议,提出建立湿地保护修复制度,实行湿地面积总量管理,严格湿地用途监管,推进退化湿地修复,增强湿地生态功能,维护湿地生物多样性。这对于全国湿地人而言,是一个鼓舞人心的消息。恰逢长江湿地网络十周岁,各与会单位分享了十年来的湿地保护成果,但是在今年长江流域特大洪水的警醒下,也意识到长江流域湿地保护在取得成绩的同时,也面临诸多问题。

 本届年会由国家林业局湿地保护管理中心、联合国开发计划署、世界自然基金会(WWF)与云南省林业厅共同主办,中国湿地保护协会、大理白族自治州人民政府共同承办。来自各级林业部门的负责人,长江湿地保护网络成员代表,以及WWF特邀的专家、代表等300人出席了会议。

 长江是中华民族的母亲河,以不到全国五分之一的国土面积,养育了全国三分之一的人口,创造了全国接近一半的经济总量。目前,我国正在大力推进长江经济带建设重大战略。然而,长江经济带,也是一条生态带,是全球生物多样性保护的热点地区,是世界自然基金会(WWF)在全球的35个优先生态区之一,也是维系流域生态安全、水安全、粮食安全的重要的生命命脉。从这个意义上,长江湿地生态系统是长江经济带战略的核心资本。

 国家林业局副局长陈凤学在会上发言,国家林业局把长江经济带湿地保护与恢复,作为推进长江经济带建设战略的重要举措,从湿地保护工程、中央财政湿地补贴政策等方面,切实加大了支持力度,并启动编制长江沿江重点湿地保护修复专项规划,实施整体保护,系统修复。目前,长江经济带有国际重要湿地18处,湿地自然保护区167处,国家湿地公园291处,形成了较为完善的湿地保护体系。

  WWF中国保护总监刘晓海先生认为,长江湿地生态系统是长江经济带战略的核心资本。在水资源、防洪抗旱、湿地产品供给、航运和文化价值方面具有重要贡献。然而,长江流域生态仍然面临着巨大的威胁。十八年前,长江流域普遍发生大洪水,世界自然基金会从此开启生命之河长江项目,从退垸还湖、保护湿地、社区共管、产业转型开始,足迹遍及高山、平原、大海。今年,长江的洪水再次提醒我们,保护长江生态,刻不容缓;实施长江大保护战略,全面保护和修复湿地生态系统是全流域建设生态文明的一项重大举措。

  2007年, WWF和国家林业局湿地保护管理中心及长江中下游51市湿地主管机构,在上海市崇明东滩国家级湿地保护区召开了长江中下游湿地保护网络启动大会,形成了携手保护长江生命之河的组织框架,正式宣告这个由管理机构、研究单位、社会团体和公众广泛参与的区域性战略合作平台的成立。从2007年到2016年,历经十年,长江湿地保护网络范围从6个省份扩大到12个省份,湿地网络成员从最初的20个,扩展到今年的252个,推动长江中下游湿地保护区有效管理的示范工作在流域范围内推广应用,并形成了常规联络与合作机制,一年一度的网络年会,从《崇明倡议》到《大理宣言》,从湿地修复、气候变化适应到经济的绿色转型,观念不断更新,好的案例层出不穷,流域尺度上的湿地保护获得长足进展。

 本次长江湿地保护网络年会,聚焦长江大保护。复旦大学陈家宽教授,通过详实的数据,阐释了长江大保护的科学依据。长江科学院副院长陈进教授,则从今年长江流域的特大洪水谈起,解读了湿地在长江流域防洪减灾方面的作用。GEF中国湿地保护体系项目首席技术顾问马敬能先生则以了解和保护越冬水鸟需大数据支撑为主题,带来了鸟类监测与湿地保护的国际经验。会议也关注了长江流域从高原、中下游到河口的保护状况与策略,专家代表、专家分别从湿地管理、环境教育、物种保护的角度分享了经验。

 值得一提的是,长江湿地网络年会在历经十年的发展壮大之后,在今年实现了全国性的覆盖。去年,长江湿地保护网络的成功经验推广到了黄河、黑龙江流域以及滨海湿地,长江湿地保护网络的影响力在全国范围内迅速扩散,其理念和实践已经成为了一个标志和标杆。今年,长江也迎来了黄河、黑龙江、珠江、滨海的“湿地人”参会,以长江湿地保护网络为起点,一个覆盖全国的协作共享与参与式湿地保护平台正在形成。未来将依托长江湿地保护网络平台,加强国际交流与合作,促进不同流域保护网络之间的互动,完善长江湿地保护网络内的合作机制,上下游联手,全社会联动,携手大保护。

 

“聚焦高原湿地  携手长江大保护”

《大理宣言》

2016114日,中国 大理

    我们,来自国家林业局、长江流域以及联合国全球环境基金中国湿地保护体系项目所在省、区、市湿地管理部门,长江湿地保护网络成员单位,联合国开发计划署、世界自然基金会等国际组织,以及科研院所和高校代表,于2016114日相聚苍山洱海之畔的大理,以长江湿地保护网络年会为载体,就长江流域湿地保护进行广泛交流,深入探讨,达成共识,共同发表《聚焦高原湿地携手长江大保护——大理宣言》

我们持续强调——

1、长江是生命之河,在全球生物多样性保护中具有举足轻重的作用。长江是世界上为数不多的拥有江豚、白鱀豚两种淡水豚类的河流。长江流域有鱼类370种,包括177种特有种;水鸟种类超过300种,是白鹤、中华秋沙鸭、小白额雁、勺嘴鹬等全球旗舰物种的主要分布区,鄱阳湖、盐城和洞庭湖在东亚-澳大利西亚候鸟迁徙路线1031块重要湿地的重要性排名中,分列第一、三、五位,对迁徙鸟类保护具有决定性作用。一个完整的、稳定的长江湿地生态系统,在应对全球气候变化,实现流域可持续发展中发挥着不可替代的作用,更是最大的民生福祉。

2、长江流域湿地生态屏障初步建立。长江流域湿地生态系统中丰富的水资源、防洪抗旱的功能、丰富的湿地产品、航运和文化价值都构成了长江经济带战略的核心资本。目前,全流域已经列为国际重要湿地有18处,建立了湿地自然保护区167处,国家湿地公园291处,其中252处湿地管理机构已经成为长江湿地保护网络的成员。较为完善的长江湿地保护空间网络格局初步形成,流域湿地生态安全屏障初步建立。

3、“长江大保护”促进长江流域湿地保护实现主流化。 20161月,习近平总书记提出了“长江拥有独特的生态系统,是我国重要的生态宝库。当前和今后相当长一个时期,要把修复长江生态环境摆在压倒性位置,共抓大保护,不搞大开发。”的宏伟愿景;中央全面深化体制改革领导小组会议又进一步对湿地自然资源资本产权制度和湿地保护修复制度作为重大任务进行了部署,提出了明确的要求。为长江流域湿地全面实现主流化管理、制度化管理,推动保护与修复政策,实现流域可持续发展指明了方向。

我们清醒地认识到——

1、长江流域湿地生态系统还十分脆弱。长期以来对河流、湖泊、滩涂等湿地的围垦占用,河湖阻隔,过度利用,生物多样性下降,功能退化等问题依然严重;维系流域水安全和生态功能的能力削弱,在极端气候的情况下,长江流域依然面临着特大洪水的威胁。重点区域的湿地保护和退化湿地的修复任务还十分艰巨。

2、长江既是一条经济带也是一条生态带。长江流域上、中、下游的区域经济社会发展不均衡,承载了资源利用模式与利用强度与流域生态系统自身的承载力还不匹配。重开发、轻保护的意识仍然存在。

3、长江流域湿地管理的制度化建设还任重道远。长江流域是我国开展湿地保护与修复较早的区域,积累了宝贵的经验,但与全社会需求和国家战略部署要求仍然存在差距。湿地保护的法律法规体系建设还不完善,湿地自然资本价值、资产产权管理和保护修复的制度化建设还没有完全建立,湿地面积总量管理还比较粗放,基于流域的综合管理体制建设还需要进一步突破。

 为此,我们倡议——

1、全面提高湿地保护与修复的认识。要向全社会广泛、深入、持续地宣传湿地保护与修复的紧迫性和重要性;宣传湿地保护与修复制度建设是深化体制改革中着重强调的、关乎国家安全的大事,是全国保护湿地总量到2020年不低于8亿亩的生态文明建设目标,是履行国际义务和展示负责人大国形象的重要措施,更是长江大保护的核心与重中之重。 

2、进一步增进长江流域的民生福祉。在推动长江经济带国家战略发展过程中,应从长远利益考虑,走生态优先、绿色发展之路,使长江永葆生机和活力;借鉴国内外湿地保护先进经验,把流域内湿地保护和修复作为改善流域生态、提高民生福祉的重要抓手,全面融入城市基础设施和乡村环境建设,让全社会都能分享到湿地保护的红利,实现共享发展。

3、深化长江流域湿地保护与管理体制改革。遵照中央全面深化改革领导小组第二十九次会议精神,尽快推进国家层面和长江流域立法保护的进程,加强地方性湿地保护法规体系建设;创新管理模式,建立全球视野下的长江流域湿地保护与修复模式;保护优先,生态优先,减少开发利用强度,划定生态红线,总量管控;推进流域综合管理;创新多元化的投入机制;进一步推进湿地保护的主流化、社会化和国际化。

4、实施长江流域湿地修复的重大工程。在《全国湿地保护“十三五”实施规划》基础上,全面掌握长江流域湿地退化的主因,制定自然修复为主、人工修复相结合的修复措施,全面恢复湿地生态系统健康,构建“尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然”的流域生态安全屏障;优先在长江源头区部署重大生态修复工程,齐心协力管护好高原湖泊、河流、草原和野生动物等生态资源。

5、加强全方位合作,携手“长江大保护”。依托长江湿地保护网络平台,加强国际交流与合作,促进不同流域保护网络之间的互动,完善长江湿地保护网络内的合作机制。上下游联手,全社会联动,携手大保护,为长江流域生态文明建设作出新的贡献!

 

Annual Meeting of Yangtze WetlandConservation Network 2016

Dali Declaration

Focusing on Alpine Wetlands for Extensive Protection of YangtzeRiver”

Dali, China   November 4, 2016

 

    We, more than 200 delegates from the State Forestry Administration ofthe People’s Republic of China, wetland authorities from relevant provinces,municipalities and autonomous regions within Yangtze River basin and under GEFChina Wetland PA System Programme, the members under Yangtze WetlandConservation Network, international organizations including UNDP, WWF, relevantresearch institutes, universities and colleges in China, among otherorganizations, gathered on November 4, 2016 in Dali, China, which is known forits Mt. Cangshan and Erhai Lake, to attend the annual meeting of YangtzeWetland Conservation Network. We have shared our views and held in-depthdiscussions on wetland conservation in Yangtze River basin. On this basis, wehave reached a consensus, jointly issuing “Dali Declaration: Focusing on AlpineWetlands for Extensive Protection of Yangtze River”.

We continue to stress that:

1. Yangtze River is a life support systemfor China, playing a decisive role in global biodiversity conservation. As theonly river in the world that has two species of freshwater dolphins (i.e.,finless porpoise and Yangtze river dolphin), the Yangtze River basin is home to370 species of fish, including 177 endemic ones. It also plays a crucial rolein conserving more than 300 species of migratory water birds, serving as amajor distribution area for many global flagship species, such as Siberianwhite crane, Chinese merganser, Lesser white-fronted goose and Spoon-billedsandpiper.  In addition, Poyang Lake,Yancheng and Dongting Lake are ranked the first, third and fifth among 1,031 keywetland sites along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF).  An intact and stable wetland ecosystem inYangtze River can significantly help address climate change and extreme weatherconditions, achieve sustainable development in the river basin, and contributeto the well-being of the people whose livelihood depends on the river basin;

2. The ecological barrier in Yangtze Riverbasin has been initially built. The rich water resources, important functionsin flood control and drought resistance, diverse products, shipping andcultural values, among others, provided by Yangtze River wetland ecosystemconstitute the core capital of Yangtze River Economic Belt strategy. So far, 18Ramsar sites, 167 wetland nature  reserves and 291 national wetland parks have been established within theYangtze River basin. 252 wetland administrations have joined Yangtze RiverWetland Conservation Network. A complete spatial framework on the protection ofwetlands in the river basin has been initially developed, thus playing acritical role in helping build an ecological barrier in the region.

3. “Extensive protection of Yangtze River”has contributed to mainstreaming wetland conservation of Yangtze River basin.As Chinese president Xi Jinping noted in January 2016, “Yangtze River is hometo a unique ecosystem, and is known as a key ecological function area in China.We should give top priority to conserving and restoring the eco-environmentalconditions in Yangtze River, and do not engage in large-scale development inthe region at present and in the long run. ”At the 29th Session of the CentralLeading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms, the building of naturalresources property right system and wetland protection and restoration systemhave been defined as the key tasks, and requirements have been made clear, thusproviding directions for mainstreamed and institutionalized wetland management,protection, restoration and sustainable development of Yangtze River basin.

 We are also fully aware that:

1. The wetland ecosystem in Yangtze River basin is still fragile.  For a long time, the river basin is sufferingfrom many severe problems, such as the reclamation and occupation of wetlandsincluding rivers, lakes and mudflats, disconnection between rivers and lakes,over-exploitation, biodiversity loss and functional degradation. Its capacityof maintaining water security and ecological services has been undermined. Incase of extreme weather conditions, the Yangtze River basin is still facing thethreat of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, we are still faced with a dauntingtask of protecting and restoring some key wetlands areas in the river basin.

2. Yangtze River is both an economic beltand an ecological belt. The regional socio-economic development in the upper,middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River basin is still unbalanced. The humanexploitation of natural resources has exceeded the ecosystems’ maximum carryingcapacity. There still exists a widespread belief that economic development ismore important than environmental protection.

3.  There is still a long way togo for the institutionalization of wetland management in Yangtze River basin.The Yangtze River basin is one of the first regions in China which haveimplemented wetland protection and protection, and has gained valuable experiencesin this respect. However, it still cannot meet the social needs and nationalstrategic demands. The wetland conservation-related legislation system isincomplete. The wetland natural capital valuation, asset property rightmanagement, protection and restoration systems have not been fully developed.The total wetland area is still based on extensive management, and a soundintegrated river basin management system needs to be established.

 For this reason, we propose to:

1. Further raise public awareness ofwetland protection and restoration. It is necessary to further raise publicawareness about the urgency and importance of wetland protection andrestoration, which is of vital importance to the national safety as highlightedin the Decision on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms;contributes significantly to achieving one of the ecological civilizationdevelopment objectives – “keeping the total wetland area in China no less than53.3 million hectares by 2020” ; is a key action to fulfill China’sinternational obligations and promote its image as a responsible big country;and is a major component of extensive protection of Yangtze River.

2Further enhance thelivelihood and well-being of the people in the Yangtze River basin. In theprocess of promoting the development of Yangtze River Economic Belt, Chinaneeds to pursue a path of green growth taking into account the long-termbenefits and prioritizing ecological protection, with a view to enabling theYangtze River to maintain its vigor and vitality. We ought to improve theecological conditions and people’s well-being in the river basin, enable thewhole society to benefit from wetland conservation efforts, and promote sharedeconomic prosperity by learning from the domestic and international bestpractices on wetland conservation, and by integrating wetland protection andrestoration into urban infrastructural development and rural environmentalprotection.

3.Deepen reform of wetland protection andmanagement systems in Yangtze River basin. According to the guiding principlesof the 29th Session of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively DeepeningReforms, we should promote the wetland conservation legislation at nationallevel as soon as possible, and strengthen the development of wetlandconservation regulations at local level. We should innovate management models,and develop wetland protection and restoration models in Yangtze River basinfrom a global perspective. We should also give top priority to ecological protection,reduce the intensity of development and use, delineate ecological red lines,and manage the total wetland area. Finally, we should promote integrated riverbasin management, and explore innovative and diverse investment mechanisms tomainstream, engage the general public and work with the international communityin wetland conservation.

4. Implement key programs on wetland restoration in Yangtze Riverbasin.  On the basis of theImplementation Plan on National Wetland Conservation in China during the 13thFive-Year Plan Period (2016-2020), and targeting the root causes of wetlanddegradation in Yangtze River basin, the measures that integrate naturalrestoration and artificial restoration should be developed to enhance wetlandfunctions, and to build a regional ecological safety barrier that can “respect,comply with and protect nature”. A series of key programs on wetlandrestoration should be implemented in the source areas of Yangtze River to wellprotect the ecological resources such as alpine lakes, rivers, grasslands andwild animals.

5. Strengthen cooperation in all respects for extensive protection ofYangtze River.  The platform of YangtzeRiver Wetland Conservation Network should be leveraged to strengtheninternational exchange and cooperation, promote the interaction between/amongthe various river basin conservation networks, and improve the cooperativemechanism of Yangtze River Wetland Conservation Network. All in all, the upperand lower reaches should work together, and the whole community should beinvolved in making more contributions to the building of ecologicalcivilization in Yangtze River basin.

 



WWF 世界自然基金会  长江生态区保护